Introduce the theory of industrial cluster 1 Comment / default / By GoodBoy Industrial cluster theory
1 thought on “Introduce the theory of industrial cluster”
Industrial clusters refer to many enterprises of different scale and cooperative relationships that concentrated in a certain area in a certain area. Space accumulation represents a new form of spatial economic organizations between the market and hierarchy.
On from the perspective of industrial structure and product structure, the industrial cluster is actually the depth of the processing of a certain product and the extension of the industrial chain. In a certain significance, it is the adjustment and optimization and upgrading of the industrial structure. From the perspective of industrial organizations, the industrial group is actually the vertical and integrated development of a large company or large enterprise group in a certain area. If the industrial structure and the industrial organization are combined, the industrial cluster actually means the meaning of industrial groups and gathered development. In other words, a certain industrial chain or certain industrial chain formed in a certain area or area. The core of the industrial cluster is the high concentration of the industry within a certain space, which is conducive to reducing the institutional cost of the enterprise (including production costs, exchange costs), improving the economic benefits and scope economic benefits of scale, and improving the market competitiveness of the industry and enterprises Essence From the micro -level analysis of the industrial cluster, that is, from the perspective of a single enterprise or industrial organization, the enterprise can use the vertical integration to use a low -cost market transaction with a high -cost market transaction to reduce transaction cost Vertical integration can enhance the stability of the production and sales of enterprises; through vertical integration, it can form a certain competitive advantage in terms of production costs, raw material supply, product sales channels and prices, to improve the barriers of enterprises into barriers; It can increase the sensitivity of enterprises to market information; through vertical integration, enterprises can enter high -tech industries and high -profit industries.
The cluster or cluster group (cluster) originally concentrated in the same or similar thing in a certain place. As early as the 1970s or earlier, there were foreign scholars () introduced the cluster into the cluster to the cluster to the cluster to Economics has proposed the concept of industrial cluster (). In 1990, Professor Potter Professor of the United States re -proposed the concept of industrial clusters in the book "National Competition Advantages" and analyzed the competitive advantage of a country or region with the method of industrial cluster. The concept of industrial clusters has been widely accepted by scholars. According to the understanding of Professor Porter, the industrial cluster is an organic whole composed of a close connection with a close connection with a certain industrial field and other corresponding institutions. The industrial cluster should include at least the following factors: first, it is related to a certain industrial field. Generally speaking, enterprises and other institutions in industrial clusters are often related to a certain industrial field, which is the foundation for industrial clusters. Secondly, there is a close connection between the enterprises and other institutions in the industrial cluster. Enterprises and related institutions in the industrial cluster do not exist in isolation, but are nodes in the entire network, which is the key to the formation of industrial clusters. Third, the industrial cluster is a complex organic whole. Inside the industrial cluster includes not only enterprises, but also related chambers of commerce, associations, banks, intermediaries, etc., is a complex organic whole. This is an entity of the industrial cluster.
The industrial concentration and industrial cluster
industrial concentration () refers to the share of several companies in a certain industry in the entire industry. The focus. Industrial concentration can be reflected by absolute centralized indicators and relative concentration indicators. Absolutely concentrated indicators are usually reflected in the proportion of a certain number of companies in a certain industry in a certain industry. From this we can see the monopoly of the largest enterprises to the entire industry, and the relative concentrated indicators are mainly measured by the Ginno coefficient based on the Lorenz curve () and the Lorenz curve. The concentration of all enterprises. Generally speaking, if there is no special explanation, the concentration of the industry mainly reflects the level of production of production
The degree of monopoly in the industry, and it is not directly related to the space distribution of the industry. At the same time focus on. Therefore, the concept of industrial concentration is far from the concept of industrial clusters, and the two have not been directly connected.
If industrial agglomeration and industrial cluster
gathering () refers to the spatial concentration process of things. As early as a century ago, Weber began to gather together in the "Industrial Zone Theory" ( ) The concept is mainly about the space gathering of the industry. Industrial agglomeration () refers to the concentrated distribution of industries in space, which is the focus of economic geography. Industrial agglomeration is mainly to study the spatial distribution form of the industry, and pay special attention to the process of space transition from scattered to concentration. The development of industries in the same space can share infrastructure and bring large economic benefits. Industrial agglomeration is closely related to industrial clusters, but there is a difference between the two. The space cluster of the industry can form an industrial cluster, but not all industrial agglomerations can form industrial clusters. Although some industries are gathered, there is no connection between each other, and industrial clusters cannot be formed. Therefore, industrial agglomeration is only a necessary condition for the formation of industrial clusters, not all conditions.
The industrial chain and industrial cluster
industrial chain () is a very traditional concept, which refers to a certain link from all aspects of raw materials, processing, production to sales. As early as 1958, the concept of industrial chain was discussed from the perspective of the industry's forward to the perspective of the industry's front -to -line connection. At present, the value chain, production chain, and production chain related to the industry chain are Different concepts such as supply chain and commodity chain. Although the statement has changed, the essence of its content has not changed, but the industry's connection is explained from different research perspectives. Compared with the industrial cluster, the industrial chain also emphasizes the connection between industries, but the industrial chain mainly focuses on the connection between industries. the concept of. The concept of industrial clusters is much richer than the concept of the industrial chain. It includes both the connection between the industry, the connection between the industry and other related institutions, and the emphasis on the gathering of space.
The industrial park and industrial cluster
The construction of my country's industrial parks is closely related to the construction of the economic and technological development zone. At that time, the basic requirements of the state's development zone were "three main and dedicated", that is, industry -based, export -oriented, and using foreign capital as the main development, and committed to the development of high -tech industries. As different types of development zones are fully launched in my country, various types of industrial parks are also built accordingly. The original intention of the construction of industrial parks is to use foreign capital. Therefore, the industries in the park are mainly foreign companies. Therefore, industrial parks are typical ways to drive economic growth. Because of this, many industrial parks have not considered their own regional background in the process of development, which causes the industrial positioning of the park to be out of touch with the surrounding areas. Local development. Unlike industrial parks, the close connection between industrial clusters emphasizing industry clusters is the theory of internal development. However, in some industrial parks, the connection between enterprises is very close, forming an industrial cluster. Therefore, the industrial park provides space for the formation of industrial clusters. Whether the industrial agglomeration can be formed depends on the relationship between enterprises.
The role of industrial cluster on regional development
Pymal cluster relies on internal contact networks, which has effectively promoted the rapid development of the local regional economy. Local governments in many countries have effectively combined the internal force of the local production system and the external forces of the local production system and the external force of the international resources, which improves regional competitiveness and has achieved a lot of successful experience. In recent years, some of my country's coastal areas have begun to form a group of industrial clusters with great influence, which has become an important way to drive regional economic development, improve industrial competitiveness, and achieve leapfrog development. The impact of industrial clusters on regional development is mainly manifested in the following aspects.
(1) Industrial cluster is an important way to promote regional economic growth. The industrial cluster is actually combining the industrial development and regional economy, through the professionalization of division of labor and the convenience of transactions, to effectively combine it to form an effective production organization, which is an important way to promote local regional economic growth.
First of all, the development of industrial clusters can improve regional production efficiency. A large number of small and medium -sized enterprises gather in a certain area, which can further deepen the division of labor and collaboration in the region. In addition to the efficient rate brought about by the refinement of division of labor, it can also greatly reduce the transportation cost caused by frequent transactions between enterprises due to the approaching nature of the space. In addition, in modern industrial agglomerations, the cooperation transactions of economic activities can often reach a consensus on social and cultural background and value concept. This kind of cooperation division of cooperation based on social network trust can reduce mutual fraud between enterprises. For maintaining clusters Stability and improvement of production efficiency play a very important role.
Secondly, the development of industrial clusters can produce snowball -type agglomeration effects, attracting more related companies to gather here. Expand and strengthen the agglomeration effect. The external economy generated by the gathering itself is the driving force for external enterprises to enter. Once the prototype of the industrial cluster is formed, it has entered the virtuous cycle process of internal self -enhancement, that is, attracting more related enterprises and units to gather to the cluster, and newly added enterprises It also increased the cluster effect with the unit, which produced the snowball effect and promoted the rapid development of the regional economy.
Third, the development of industrial clusters can promote the rapid derivation and growth of new enterprises in the cluster. Inside the cluster, not only do many related companies gather here, but there are also many corresponding R